Foundation Basics

Makeup Foundation basics

 

I know how overwhelming makeup can be. When I started doing makeup I thought there was only one type of foundation, scratch that, I didn’t even know what foundation was! That’s why I decided to make this huge, extra detailed post on EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT FOUNDATION.

What (the heck) is foundation?
Foundation is makeup we put on our face to even out the skin tone and texture. Foundation should always match our skin tone.

 

Finding the correct shade
To find the perfect foundation shade you need to know your skin undertone. Don’t panic! There’s an easy way to find out. Look down you wrist.

skin undertone chart

Now that you now your skin tone, let’s find a foundation shade:

Cool tones
The best foundation shades are the ones with pink and red undertones.

image

Neutral tones
Neutral foundation have a combination of pink and yellow undertones.

neutral foundation skintone

 

Warm tones
In the warm category the lightest shades have yellow and gold undertones. The darker shades have red to orange undertones.

warm foundation skin undertone

 

Application
Before I keep rambling about foundation we need to talk a bit about brushes! And no, you don’t need a thousand professional brushes to achieve a picture perfect application. Here are my recommended brushes and tips on how to use them.

Fingers
Applying creams and liquid this way allows the product to melt into your skin giving it a healthy glow. Two golden rules to remember are always wash your hands before any application and don’t apply foundation in round motions because it’ll get the product into your pores. The best way to do it is tapping the product all over your face.

Foundation brush
This brush allow you to apply foundation in sweeping motions. It gives a natural finish with a medium coverage. Because of it shape, you can end up with streaks on your face so remember to blend does away.

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Foundation brush

 

Flat kabuki brush
The dense, flat top of this brush allows you to apply and blend any liquid or cream foundation. It gives a precise full coverage. Just apply product onto the face blend in dabbing motions.

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Flat kabuki brush

 

Beauty Blender
Using a beauty sponge will give you a smooth complexion with no streaks. It can be used to apply and blend moisturizers, creams, and liquids. Just wet the sponge with water, squeeze the excess, and bounce away any product you want across the face. The Beauty Blender gives you a medium to full coverage without wasting any product.

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Beauty Blender

 

Buffing brush
This brush have dense yet soft bristles that create a flawless blending. All you have to do is buff any product in circular motions for a medium to full coverage.

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Buffing brush

 

Stippling brush
By far my favorite blending brush! The duo fiber bristles allow you to blend liquids and powders onto the face giving it an airbrushed finish. Blend the product in, moving the brush in small, circular motions all over the face and down the neck and chest.

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Stippling brush

 

Powder brush
These are round and fluffy brushes that diffuse powders evenly onto the face without ‘caking up’ the makeup.

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Powder brush

 

 

Types of foundation

Tinted moisturizer

What is it
A tinted moisturizer is simply a short-wear moisturizer with a slightly tint. It hydrate and evens out the skin tone but won’t cover major issues.

For which skin works the best
Because the main function of this product is moisturize, normal, normal to dry, and dry skin are the mostly recommended to use it.

How to apply
The best way to apply it’s by blending it with the fingers.

Coverage
Sheer

My pick

000356490
LAURA MERCIER Tinted Moisturizer Broad Spectrum SPF 20 – Oil Free

 

BB cream

What is it
BB cream stand for beauty or blemish balm. They are design to hydrate and moisturize the skin while evening out the skin tone. These beauty balms also promote skin health by providing antioxidants and broad-spectrum SPF.

For which skin works the best
BB creams have become very popular lately. There are different types for every skin type and condition. Of course people with dry and extra dry skin will be the most benefited.

How to apply
Same as tinted moisturizers, the best way to apply a BB cream is by using your fingers. Another way to make it look smooth is by blending it with a damped Beauty Blender.

Coverage
Sheer to medium

My pick

74282-0
BAREMINERALS Complexion Rescue Tinted Hydrating Gel Cream Broad Spectrum SPF 30

 

CC cream

What is it
CC cream stands for color corrective cream. The difference between BB cream and CC cream is the coverage. BB creams focus on the healing and maintenance of the skin while CC creams focus on concealing and correcting. Back to this last one, its job is to cancel out any pigmentation, redness, or dullness on the face.

For which skin works the best
Same as BB creams, CC creams have become very trendy and anyone can find one that match their skin type.

How to apply
Apply CC cream exactly like a BB cream.

Coverage
Sheer to medium

My pick

cccream_fair_main
IT COSMETICS Your Skin But Better CC Cream with SPF 50+

 

Cream-to-powder foundation

What is it
This product is a two-in-one. It applies as a creamy foundation hiding any imperfection, then it dries leaving a powdery, slightly matte finish. It has a lightweight feeling and does not rub off or smudge during the day.

For which skin works the best
This formula is great for normal and normal to dry skin. If you have oily skin beware although this product is part powder the cream still produces oil and shine. Now, if you have dry skin the matte, powdery finish will only create more dryness.
How to apply
Most of the time this foundations bring a sponge that you can use to apply it but for a more velvety look use a damped Beauty Bender. You can also use brushes such as a flat foundation brush or a flat kabuki brush.

Coverage
Full

My pick

studio-fix-powder-foundation
MAC Studio Fix Powder plus Foundation

 

Mousse foundation

What is it
This foundation has an air whipped, creamy texture. It glides smoothly into the skin and dries to a matte kind of powdery finish.

For which skin works the best
This type of foundation wears great on almost every type of skin. It actually hydrates dry areas and absorb oil in the T-zone.

How to apply
Mousse foundation can be apply with the fingers which will melt product on the skin giving it a velvet appearance. A flat kabuki brush works as well.

Coverage
Medium to full

My pick

mousse
MAYBELLINE Dream Matte Mousse Foundation

 

Spray foundation

What is it
This is a buildable foundation that gives a beautiful airbrushed finish. It’s lightweight so it goes smooth on the skin and doesn’t crack.

For which skin works the best
Because of the light and smooth feel, this product works beautifully on every skin type and it’s great for sensitive skin.

How to apply
Great thing about this foundation is that you can apply it in many ways. First of all, always shake well before opening. It can be spray directly onto the face. This will require a little (a lot) of precision. After spraying, blend it with a damped Beauty Blender. For an easier application just spray some foundation on a damped Beauty Blender, a buffing brush or a kabuki brush. This last method will also help you save more product.

Coverage
Medium (when sprayed directly on face), full (applied directly with a kabuki brush)

My pick

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DIOR Diorskin Airflash Spray Foundation

 

Cream foundation

What is it
This is one of the heaviest foundation formula there is. The thick consistency helps the skin looks soft and smooth, hiding any discoloration, age spot, scarring, or fine line.

For which skin works the best
This is highly recommended for dry and mature skin. People with oily and acne-prone skin should avoid this foundation due to the heavy consistency, this product contains a considerate amount of moisturizer.

How to apply
Cream foundation dries fast so you should work on one area at the time. A little goes a long way so apply a small amount and blend away with a damped Beauty Blender or a flat kabuki brush. Remember, this product clog pores easily so do not rub it in circular motions, just do dabbing motions.

Coverage
Full

My pick

883140003144-cover-creme
DERMABLEND Cover Creme Broad Spectrum SPF 30

 

Liquid foundation

What is it
Liquid foundation is by far the most popular and versatile formula out there. They are perfect to reduce the appearance of pores and fine lines, and even out the skin tone. Great thing about liquid foundation is you can choose the finish you want, they go from dewy to matte.

For which skin works the best
Liquid foundation works for every type of skin. You just have to find the one that matches your needs. People with normal and dry skin should go for oil based foundation and for oily and acne-prone skin water based and matte finish foundations are recommended.

How to apply
Liquid foundation can be apply with the fingers, a foundation brush, a damped beauty blender, a stippling brush, a buffing brush, or a kabuki brush. It all depends on the desired coverage.

Coverage
Medium to full

My pick

 

Serum foundation

What is it
Serum foundation have the best of both worlds (just like Miley). This product have the coverage of a liquid foundation but the lightweight feeling of a tinted moisturizer and the nourishing benefits of a BB cream. It also has a beautiful, natural finish.

For which skin works the best
If you have dry skin moisturize and hydrate before applying foundation. If you have with oily skin use a setting powder after applying the serum to avoid shine.

How to apply
How to apply: With serum foundation you a have to consider two thing: the product is thin and watery, and a little goes a long way! So just apply a few drops onto your fingertips and blend away. You can also apply the product with a buffing brush for more precision or use the trusty beauty blender. Don’t forget to shake well before using.

Coverage
Medium to full

My pick

s1685197-main-Lhero
BOBBI BROWN Intensive Skin Serum Foundation

 

Stick foundation

What is it
This is foundation in the form of a stick, like a lipstick. Stick foundation is highly pigmented so it has a heavy coverage. It works great for photography.

For which skin works the best
Because it has a thick consistency, stick foundation tend to be a bit drying. For people with oily skin this product would absorb any oil and shine.

How to apply
To avoid the ‘cakey’ look and appearance of fine lines, draw a few lines on your cheeks, forehead, chin, and nose, then blend in with a kabuki brush or a beauty blender. To give the face more dimension apply about one or two shades darker than your skin tone where you would usually contour and blend away.

Coverage
Full

My pick

s1713171-main-Lhero
MAKE UP FOR EVER Ultra HD Invisible Cover Stick Foundation

 

Powders

What is it
The job of face powders is to mattify, set liquids and creams, and reduce the appearance of pores and fine lines. There are different types of face powders and each one has a different function.

For which skin works the best
Translucent powders work great in every skin. If your setting powder is tinted, try to find the closest shade to your complexion. Pressed, loose, and mineral powders work best on oily skin because they absorb any oils and shine leaving a matte surface. If you have normal or dry skin a light coat of powder will work great but if it’s build up the makeup could look ‘cakey’.

Setting powder
What is it
This powder is used to set liquid and cream foundation so it doesn’t run and last longer. It can be tinted or translucent and mattify as well.

Finishing powder
What is it
This powder is mostly used after a coat of setting powder. Finishing powders are usually white and are meant to smooth and blur fine lines and pores. These are best for photography and formal events. Always remember to buff and blend well, otherwise you will end up with flashbacks whenever you take a picture.

HD powder
What is it
High Definition (HD) powder is another type of finishing powder. This powder is mainly used by films and TV makeup artist because it gives a more subtle complexion on camera.

How to apply
Setting, finishing, and HD powders are mainly loose. The best way to apply them is with powder brush or a stippling brush. For baking you can use a damped Beauty Blender.

Coverage
None

My pick

 

Rice powder
What is it
This product is very popular between the Asian women. It’s perfect for a touching up the shine throughout the day. You might also find rice paper which is oil absorbing sheets.

How to apply
The best way to use rice powder is with the oil absorbing sheets. Of course if you want, you can apply loose rice powder with a fluffy powder brush of a stippling brush.

Coverage
None

My pick

image
PALLADIO Rice Paper Tissues

 

Pressed powder
What is it
It comes in a compact, perfect to carry on your bag. Pressed powder has pigment so it can be used to even out the skin tone and to touch up during the day but careful because it can ‘cake up’ your face.

How to apply
Pressed powder tend to be a little heavy so using a powder brush or a stippling brush will give you a more defuse look.

Coverage
Sheer to medium

My pick

image
LORAC POREfection Baked Perfecting Powder

 

Loose power
What is it
Loose powder is a pigmented powder. It has smaller particles which makes it more buildable.

Mineral foundation
What is it
This pigmented, commonly loose powder doesn’t include fragrances, oils, or alcohol which makes it perfect for sensitive, oily, and acne-prone skin. It’s great for covering any redness or minor dullness.

How to apply
For pigmented loose powder and mineral powder you can use a powder brush or a stippling brush.

Coverage
Medium

My pick

 

Quick tips

Testing
Test the foundation and leave the store to see the actual color and how it react throughout the day. Generally, the lightings at the stores disturb the color of it.

Foundation too dark
If you bought a foundation too dark mix it with moisturizer or sunscreen. This will smooth the color of the foundation.

Foundation too light
If you bought a foundation too light apply it as you normally would and then bronze the face to warm the complexion.

Buying brushes
Whenever you’re buying a makeup brush, make sure the bristles feel soft and gentle on the skin.

Blending
Finally, remember to always blend the foundation down your neck and chest. Please!

 

Laters

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